Fly Fishing for Trout Home
User Password
or register.
Scientific name search:

Insect Order Plecoptera (Stoneflies)

Pictures Below
Stoneflies are the largest of the three main types of trout stream insects. While far less important than caddis and mayflies in the East and Midwest where they are mostly thought of as handy nymphs to imitate when nothing much is hatching, it's in the West where this order comes into its own. They can cause outstanding fishing, and on many rivers their hatches are the premier events of the season.

The year begins with the little dark stoneflies of the Capniidae, Leuctridae, and Nemouridae families as some of the only active aquatic insects available to trout. As the year progresses into late Winter and early Spring, the Large Springflies of the Perlodidae family in the West and Willowflies of the Taeniopterygidae are sometimes the first dry-fly insects of the season. When Spring fully arrives, so do the most significant stoneflies for the angler - the gigantic Pteronarcyidae Salmonflies of western legend. The large Golden Stones of the Perlidae supplement these hatches and are more common across the country. Summer brings on significant hatches of the Little Yellow Stones of the Perlodidae family and the little yellow or green Chloroperlidae flies that are common sights.

Hatching Behavior

While there is some evidence to suggest that a few species in the West may emerge in open water, stoneflies largely owe their lesser status to a terrestrial (Terrestrial: Insects which live on land and are fed on by trout only when they incidentally fall into the water are known as "terrestrials" to fly anglers, and they're very important in late summer.) emergence style. This keeps them safe from trout at a stage when most mayflies and caddisflies are highly vulnerable. With few exceptions, they emerge by crawling out of the water onto rocks, sticks, or other shoreline objects. In some species the adult emerges from the nymph within inches of the water; others crawl quite a distance back into the woods. But this distinction matters little to the trout. In the East, populations of the larger species are sparser and their activity is most often nocturnal. This further reduces their importance to anglers, if not the trout.

After emerging, the adults may live for up to a month. Like caddisflies and unlike mayflies, many stonefly species can eat and drink as adults.

Egg-Laying Behavior

Stonefly adults are usually most important when laying their eggs after mating; particularly the larger species. Some drop their eggs from above the water but many either flutter along the surface or land on the water and create a commotion capable of drawing savage strikes from large trout during midday. This behavior together with the broken surface of the water are reasons for the historic success of bushy, hair winged Sofa Pillow/Stimulator styles of dry flies.

Stoneflies often fall spent (Spent: The wing position of many aquatic insects when they fall on the water after mating. The wings of both sides lay flat on the water. The word may be used to describe insects with their wings in that position, as well as the position itself.) after ovipositing and can gather in eddies or slack water in surprising numbers. Anglers will do well to to look for this, particularly early on Summer mornings. Be prepared with less bushy and flush floating flies to take advantage.

Juvenile Biology

Stonefly nymphs are adept "clinger/crawlers." They have double claws on their tarsi (
The tarsus of this Isonychia bicolor mayfly spinner is highlighted in red.
The tarsus of this Isonychia bicolor mayfly spinner is highlighted in red.
Tarsus: The often multi-segmented outer leg section of an insect, which attached to the tibia.
which help them grip and clamber over fast-water rocks, and many of them have flattened bodies to make clinging even easier. Some species are better adapted to slow water, but they are not as common.

Although there are also plenty of small species, most of the largest insects in a trout stream are likely to be stonefly nymphs. They are poor swimmers, so when they occasionally slip into the drift (either by accident or during behavioral drift (Behavioral drift: The nymphs and larvae of many aquatic insects sometimes release their grip on the bottom and drift downstream for a while with synchronized timing. This phenomenon increases their vulnerability to trout just like emergence, but it is invisible to the angler above the surface. In many species it occurs daily, most often just after dusk or just before dawn.)) they are prime targets for trout. This makes stonefly nymph imitations popular and successful searching patterns (Searching pattern: Any artificial fly pattern used when trout that aren't feeding selectively on anything in particular. A searching pattern may be an attractor or an imitation of something specific that the fish might favor even though it's not currently hatching.) during non-hatch periods.

When the emergence of an especially abundant species is near, its nymphs may be so active and concentrated that trout feed on them selectively near the emergence sites. This is more common in the West where the cool, swift rivers draining its mountains hold remarkable stonefly populations.

6 Underwater Pictures of Stoneflies:

Underwater Photo Page:12
There are several mayfly and stonefly nymphs clinging to this log.  In this picture: Mayfly Family Baetidae (Blue-Winged Olives) and Stonefly Family Taeniopterygidae (Willowflies). From Eighteenmile Creek in Wisconsin.
There are several mayfly and stonefly nymphs clinging to this log.

In this picture: Mayfly Family Baetidae (Blue-Winged Olives) and Stonefly Family Taeniopterygidae (Willowflies).
Date TakenMar 19, 2004
Date AddedJan 25, 2006
The mayfly and stonefly nymphs in this picture blend in extremely well.  In this picture: Mayfly Species Ephemerella invaria (Sulphur Dun) and Insect Order Plecoptera (Stoneflies). From the Namekagon River in Wisconsin.
The mayfly and stonefly nymphs in this picture blend in extremely well.

In this picture: Mayfly Species Ephemerella invaria (Sulphur Dun) and Insect Order Plecoptera (Stoneflies).
Date TakenMar 20, 2004
Date AddedJan 25, 2006
Underwater Photo Page:12

Recent Discussions of Plecoptera

Little Black Stonefly pics 12 Replies »
Posted by Adirman on Apr 14, 2018 in the species Allocapnia granulata
Last reply on Apr 21, 2018 by Martinlf
Hey guys, went out on the Neversink for awhile today and had a look around, saw a lot of little dark flies, may be the little black stone fly? Hard to tell cuz looked like Caddis too. Looks like about a size 16? Any pics of available of this species would be great.

ReplyHigh Water 8 Replies »
Posted by Dbar on Apr 13, 2007 in the species Pteronarcys californica
Last reply on Jun 11, 2017 by Ricofreako
The hatch often occurs during high water (just after peak) so you sometimes have limited visibility during the hatch. Also - I believe that they can occur above 7000 feet.

Love ths site.
ReplySalmonfly question for you westerners 7 Replies »
Posted by Troutnut on Jul 30, 2006 in the species Pteronarcys californica
Last reply on Jun 4, 2016 by Chipper
I don't have many reliable sources about this species, so it'd be great if you western fishermen could read over the article and make sure I haven't said anything stupid or omitted anything important. I'll be happy to incorporate any additions you have.
ReplyHelopicus subvarians (Stonefly) common in New York waters! 6 Replies »
Posted by Walleye on Jan 7, 2014 in the genus Helopicus
Last reply on Jan 9, 2014 by Entoman
I have observed the Helopicus subvarians (springtime stonefly) for over 30 years on many of New Yorks Rivers, such as Beaverkill/Willowwemoc, Ausable (both east and west branch), West Canada Creek, and several others. Most of this time I believed it to be Acroneura nigrita ( Black Willow Stonely) as described by Ernest Schwiebert (Nymphs). Very distinct about the coloring of this Staonely is the last (rearward) sternites are very yellow (Ausable almost orange) while the riest is mostly black top and bottom. The thorax is again very distinctly marked with yellow (orange) with black on top. It is a most beautiflul stonefly, and is see it in May and June. It is well represented by the Montana Nymph is Black with yellow.
Replylittle green stonefly 4 Replies »
Posted by Hoss on Apr 29, 2013
Last reply on May 2, 2013 by Jodea
I was just at my local river and the fish were pounding the surface. I was able to identify the fly on the water as a little green stonefly and am very interested in some good patterns to tie to imitate it. Any and all suggestions would be appreciated.
There are 9 more topics.

Your Thoughts On Plecoptera:

You must log in at the top of the page to post. If you haven't registered yet, it's this easy:

Username:          Email:

Password:    Confirm Password:

I am at least 13 years old and agree to the rules.
Top 10 Fly Hatches
Top Gift Shop Designs
Top Insect Specimens
Miscellaneous Sites